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Gut Health

7 Steps to Gut and Brain Health

There's a reason why health experts call the gut your second brain. How your gut works dictates how the rest of your body works — even the mind. Heal your gut and boost mental health with these 7 steps.

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Gut health and mental health—and by extension, whole-body health and physical performance—are connected in more ways than one.  To improve one, you have to look at the whole system. But you can start small, and let little steps build on each other. And for clean eaters, we already have a head start with our diverse, plant-rich diet.

To begin, consider focusing on a more “traditional” diet, like Mediterranean, versus a modern diet. Think of it as eating more food from the fridge and less food from the pantry. “You’re only made up of what you eat,” says Stephanie Small, a Boulder, Colorado-based mental health nutritionist. “So the way your digestive system is working is crucial for using your fuel correctly.”

It’s critical to evaluate what fuel you put in the “gas tank” so that you’re thinking, focusing, and physically performing at a high level. If you approach your health holistically (including the oft-neglected gut) and implement these gut-health best practices, you can reap the mental rewards.

1. Consume Enough Protein, Often

A major focus of Small’s mental health nutrition program is stabilizing blood sugar. “When your blood sugar drops, people can experience symptoms like poor focus, low energy, depression, and they also experience cravings for something that will spike their blood sugar,” Small says. “When the blood sugar drops, the adrenaline fires, and the adrenaline can cause anxiety, irritability, even rage for some people.” To regulate blood sugar and your moods, she recommends eating three meals per day that each have healthy fats and at least 15 grams of protein—and never go more than four or five hours without protein.

2. Take Probiotics, in Moderation

Dr. Ellen Stein, associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins Center for Neurogastroenterology, looks to other cultures when giving guidance on probiotics—cultures that have fermented or cultured food, like kefir, cheese, kimchi, and yogurt. “If you go around the world, there’s not a single culture that doesn’t have some kind of fermented food,” she says. “So it’s meant to be a part of the diet.” Researchers don’t yet know a specific “recipe” of types or quantities of probiotics, but she recommends finding a fermented or cultured food that you enjoy having a few times per week.

3. Incorporate Anti-Inflammatory Foods

Take the average American diet and add mental and physical stress, a weakened gut, lifestyle and environmental factors and you have a recipe for a whole lot of inflammation. Small recommends combating it naturally by consuming omega-3, a highly anti-inflammatory fat found in fish, flax seeds, and walnuts, or curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric.

4. Hydrate Often

We cannot emphasize this enough: Water is critical for a well-functioning gut. And dehydration could do damage to your gut. If you go for an intense run or workout while under-hydrated, you could experience the “runs,” which is a result of the gut being cut off from blood supply, termed gut ischemia. It also tends to happen when you’re pushing beyond your fitness ability. If you feel the urge mid-workout, she recommends walking it off for a few minutes to allow the blood supply to return to the gut and prevent further injury to your intestines.

5. Practice Self-Care

That looks like getting a solid eight hours of sleep per night and finding methods to deal with your stress, like yoga, meditation, mindfulness, or therapy.

6. Eat More Fiber

“We know that when you deprive the gut of fiber, you can change the microbiome,” Stein says. Especially if you’re active, you need carbs for fuel, so focus on fueling with nutrient- and fiber-rich carbs like whole grains, quinoa, and oats.

7. Exercise

If you’re looking to keep your gut functioning well, exercise is paramount. If you’re already active, knowing how gut it is for your gut is another motivational tool to keep going. If you’re sedentary or have been putting off embarking on a truly challenging exercise journey, let your gut and mental health inspire you to move. The caveat: Listen to your body and rest or slow down when it tells you to. That slower time might coincide with your menstrual cycle. You might be sluggish and hungrier around your period but less hungry and more energetic at a different time of the month. Notice those ebbs and flows (no pun intended) in your body, and work with them—not against them.

RELATED: Can you microbiome affect performance? 

If you try these methods and are still struggling, either mentally or gastrointestinally, call in a professional. “If you can find a practitioner who knows these natural approaches for working with the gut and optimizing mental health, it shouldn’t be hard and mysterious,” Small says. You’ll have to get comfortable talking about something you never talk about (poop!), but healing your gut can only help your energy and mood.

“It’s the fuel for the rest of the body that passes through your gut,” Small says. “Don’t ignore that piece. Don’t suppress that piece, because how your gut works dictates how the rest of your body works.”

Read on for more gut-health boosting articles:

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