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Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is essential for metabolism of sugar and carbohydrates and for overall health. It appears that a deficiency of this important vitamin is more common among people who are obese compared to those of lower weight. In a study published in Advances in Nutrition, researchers in Washington, D.C., found that up to 29 percent of patients seeking bariatric surgery (abdominal procedures designed to promote weight loss) were deficient in B1. They believe this is because foods high in sugar require B1 to be metabolized, leading to a shortfall of the vitamin, which can manifest as mental and physical fatigue, mood swings, muscle and back pain, and nausea.